Glossary of Terms from the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001
in Virginia are defined as student performance on reading and mathematics
SOL assessments, in addition to graduation rate at high school level and
attendance rate at elementary and middle levels.
is the structure through which each state sets academic standards for what
every child should know and learn. Student academic achievement is
measured annually for every child and the results of the annual test are
reported to the public.
|Adequate Yearly Progress
(AYP) is an individual state's measure of yearly progress toward
achieving state academic standards. "Adequate Yearly Progress" is the
minimum level of improvement that states, school districts, and schools must
achieve each year.
used in No Child Left Behind, means tests that are aligned with academic
standards. Beginning in the 2002-03 school year, schools
administered tests in each of three grade spans: grades 3-5, grades 6-9, and
grades 10-12 in all schools. Beginning in the 2005-06 school year,
tests must be administered every year in grades 3 through 8 in math and
reading. Beginning in the 2007-08 school year, science achievement
must also be tested.
|Core Academic Subjects
include English, reading or language arts, mathematics, science, foreign
languages, civics and government, economics, arts, history, and geography.
required in No Child Left Behind is the process of sorting test results into
groups of students who are economically disadvantaged, from racial and
ethnic minority groups, have disabilities, or have limited English fluency.
|Elementary and Secondary
Education Act (ESEA), which was first enacted in 1965, is the
principal federal law affecting K-12 education. The No Child Left
Behind Act is the most recent reauthorization of the ESEA.
Paraprofessional is an individual who has (1) at least two years of
postsecondary study, (2) an associate's or higher degree or (3) met a
rigorous standard of quality that can be demonstrated through a formal
academic assessment in the areas of reading, writing, and mathematics.
|Highly Qualified Teacher
is one who has full state certification as a teacher (including
certification through alternative routes); or passed state teacher licensing
exam and holds a license in that state; and has not received a
certification/licensure waiver on an emergency, temporary, or provisional
|Homeless Children and
Youth are defined as individuals who lack a fixed, regular, and
adequate nighttime residence and include (1) children and youths who are
sharing the housing of other persons due to loss of housing, economic
hardship, or a similar reason; (2) those who are living in motel, hotel,
trailer parks, or camping grounds due to the lack of alternative adequate
accommodations; (3) children and youths living in emergency or transitional
shelters; (4) children and youths that have been abandoned in hospitals or
are awaiting foster care placement; (5) children and youths who have a
primary nighttime residence that is a public or private place not designed
for or ordinarily used as a regular sleeping accommodation; (6) children and
youths who are living in cars, parks, public spaces, abandoned buildings,
substandard housing, bus or train stations, or similar settings, and (7)
migratory children who qualify as homeless.
answer the question: "What activities must be put into action to meet the
objective?" A strategy is a "game plan" being implemented to
accomplish the objective and, ultimately, the goal. Carefully
selected, planned and implemented strategies are essential to the success of
the plan. Strategies should address potential reasons for low
achievement identified through analysis of student achievement and school
program data; are proven through scientifically based research to be
effective in improving student achievement or have high potential to do;
address how identified weaknesses in the instructional program can be
strengthened; are specific as to exactly what is to be done and how it is to
be implemented; and are NOT "more of the same."
Proficient shall be defined as an individual who (1) was not born in
the United States or whose native language is a language other than English
and comes from and environment where a language other than English is
dominant; or (2) is a Native American or Alaska Native or who is a native
resident of the outlying areas and comes from an environment where a
language other than English has had a significant impact on such
individual's level of English language proficiency; or (3) is migratory and
whose native language is other than English and comes from an
environment where a language other that English is dominant; and has
sufficient difficulty speaking, reading, writing, or understanding the
English language and whose difficulties may deny such individual the
opportunity to learn successfully in classrooms where the language of
instruction is English or to participate fully in our society.
is engaged participation by parents of students in a consistent,
organized, and meaningful way in the consultation, planning, implementation,
and evaluation of programs and activities to increase student achievement.
Activities are high quality, sustained over time, intensive, and classroom
focused activities that have a positive and lasting impact on classroom
instruction and the teacher's performance in the classroom and are not
one-day or short-term workshops or conferences.
|Public School Choice
is an option for students in schools in need of improvement to transfer to
other designated public
schools in their districts. The school districts will be required to
provide transportation for the students. Priority will be given to
|Safe Harbor is
an alternative method used for determining AYP for schools and states that
do not meet the federal standard.
is the status applied to Title I schools that have failed to meet the
State's definition of "Adequate Yearly Progress" for two consecutive years.
the categories of students for whom AYP is determined. In Virginia
these subgroups include: students with disabilities, LEP students,
economically disadvantaged, students from major racial and ethnic groups
(white (not of hispanic origin), black (not of hispanic origin), and
Services are those services that most closely resemble professional
tutorial services that are contractually purchased for the low-performing
student in a school in its second year of School Improvement.
|Unsafe School Choice Option provides students who attend persistently dangerous public schools or have been victims of violent crime at school the opportunity to transfer to a safer public school.|