Glossary of Terms from the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001


Academic Indicators in Virginia are defined as student performance on reading and mathematics SOL assessments, in addition to graduation rate at high school level and attendance rate at elementary and middle levels.
Accountability System is the structure through which each state sets academic standards for what every child should know and learn.  Student academic achievement is measured annually for every child and the results of the annual test are reported to the public.
Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) is an individual state's measure of yearly progress toward achieving state academic standards.  "Adequate Yearly Progress" is the minimum level of improvement that states, school districts, and schools must achieve each year.
Assessment as used in No Child Left Behind, means tests that are aligned with academic standards.  Beginning in the 2002-03 school year, schools  administered tests in each of three grade spans: grades 3-5, grades 6-9, and grades 10-12 in all schools.  Beginning in the 2005-06 school year, tests must be administered every year in grades 3 through 8 in math and reading.  Beginning in the 2007-08 school year, science achievement must also be tested.
Core Academic Subjects include English, reading or language arts, mathematics, science, foreign languages, civics and government, economics, arts, history, and geography.
Data Disaggregation required in No Child Left Behind is the process of sorting test results into groups of students who are economically disadvantaged, from racial and ethnic minority groups, have disabilities, or have limited English fluency.
Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA), which was first enacted in 1965, is the principal federal law affecting K-12 education.  The No Child Left Behind Act is the most recent reauthorization of the ESEA.
Highly Qualified Paraprofessional is an individual who has (1) at least two years of postsecondary study, (2) an associate's or higher degree or (3) met a rigorous standard of quality that can be demonstrated through a formal academic assessment in the areas of reading, writing, and mathematics.
Highly Qualified Teacher is one who has full state certification as a teacher (including certification through alternative routes); or passed state teacher licensing exam and holds a license in that state; and has not received a certification/licensure waiver on an emergency, temporary, or provisional basis.
Homeless Children and Youth are defined as individuals who lack a fixed, regular, and adequate nighttime residence and include (1) children and youths who are sharing the housing of other persons due to loss of housing, economic hardship, or a similar reason; (2) those who are living in motel, hotel, trailer parks, or camping grounds due to the lack of alternative adequate accommodations; (3) children and youths living in emergency or transitional shelters; (4) children and youths that have been abandoned in hospitals or are awaiting foster care placement; (5) children and youths who have a primary nighttime residence that is a public or private place not designed for or ordinarily used as a regular sleeping accommodation; (6) children and youths who are living in cars, parks, public spaces, abandoned buildings, substandard housing, bus or train stations, or similar settings, and (7) migratory children who qualify as homeless.
Intervention Strategies answer the question: "What activities must be put into action to meet the objective?"  A strategy is a "game plan" being implemented to accomplish the objective and, ultimately, the goal.  Carefully selected, planned and implemented strategies are essential to the success of the plan.  Strategies should address potential reasons for low achievement identified through analysis of student achievement and school program data; are proven through scientifically based research to be effective in improving student achievement or have high potential to do; address how identified weaknesses in the instructional program can be strengthened; are specific as to exactly what is to be done and how it is to be implemented; and are NOT "more of the same."
Limited English Proficient shall be defined as an individual who (1) was not born in the United States or whose native language is a language other than English and comes from and environment where a language other than English is dominant; or (2) is a Native American or Alaska Native or who is a native resident of the outlying areas and comes from an environment where a language other than English has had a significant impact on such individual's level of English language proficiency; or (3) is migratory and whose native language is other than English and comes from  an environment where a language other that English is dominant; and has sufficient difficulty speaking, reading, writing, or understanding the English language and whose difficulties may deny such individual the opportunity to learn successfully in classrooms where the language of instruction is English or to participate fully in our society.
Parental Involvement is engaged participation by parents of students in a consistent, organized, and meaningful way in the consultation, planning, implementation, and evaluation of programs and activities to increase student achievement.
Professional Development Activities are high quality, sustained over time, intensive, and classroom focused activities that have a positive and lasting impact on classroom instruction and the teacher's performance in the classroom and are not one-day or short-term workshops or conferences.
Public School Choice is an option for students in schools in need of improvement to transfer to other designated public schools in their districts.  The school districts will be required to provide transportation for the students.  Priority will be given to low-income students.
Safe Harbor is an alternative method used for determining AYP for schools and states that do not meet the federal standard.
School Improvement is the status applied to Title I schools that have failed to meet the State's definition of "Adequate Yearly Progress" for two consecutive years.
Subgroups are the categories of students for whom AYP is determined.  In Virginia these subgroups include: students with disabilities, LEP students, economically disadvantaged, students from major racial and ethnic groups (white (not of hispanic origin), black (not of hispanic origin), and hispanic).
Supplemental Education Services are those services that most closely resemble professional tutorial services that are contractually purchased for the low-performing student in a school in its second year of School Improvement.
Unsafe School Choice Option provides students who attend persistently dangerous public schools or have been victims of violent crime at school the opportunity to transfer to a safer public school.